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[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(18P)  

2014-05-21 01:20:38|  分类: 03欧洲专辑 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(18P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  十八大提出“生态文明”理念,公路建设实现“绿色”发展就成为时下的关键词,而我国“绿色”公路究竟如何发展仍是一个亟待研究的问题。在美国,其绿色公路不仅指公路本身,还包括与公路相关的环境工程、生态工程、人类生活和自然行为等,“公路项目在设计和施工的过程中达到一定的可持续性标准,高于现有一般项目可持续性发展水平,这样的公路项目被称为绿色公路”;在欧洲,绿色公路则提出了可靠、智能、安全和人性化的需求等。在国内,2013年1月云南省质量技术监督局批准了国内第一个绿色公路地方性标准:DB53/T 449-2013《绿色公路评价标准》,该标准规定了绿色公路评价的基本规定、绿色公路评分标准和等级评定规则,将可持续发展理念运用到公路的立项、工可、设计、施工和运营过程的各个阶段,在公路的全生命周期内,能够最大程度地合理保护环境、最大限度地有效利用资源(节能、节地、节水、节材)、最快速度地恢复生态平衡,为人们提供安全、舒适、快速、便捷的出行,与自然和谐共生的公路。
  绿色,本是自然界中常见的颜色,是一种比刚长的嫩草的颜色深些的颜色或呈艳绿,或在光谱中介于蓝与黄之间的那种颜色。绿色,与大自然和植物紧密相关。并且这一概念不断被丰富扩展,现已更多被用来描述一种有利于保护环境、节约资源、保护生态平衡的方式与行动。“绿色公路”中的“绿色”二字,实际上就是“绿色”概念的发展与深化。对绿色公路的理解,不能仅仅停留在路界范围内的污染治理加绿化美化。不仅需要在近自然化的意义上把握绿色生态技术的本质,有一种从“浅绿色观念”向“深绿色观念”的转变,而且需要把绿色公路建设理解为是一种具有系统性的生活方式的再造,它应该包括绿色技术——物质层面和和绿色文化——精神层面。“绿色公路”中的“绿色”二字唤起一种新的绿色节能意识,把低碳思想注入公路环境体系。它使公路设计及建设的视野从围绕着公路本身扩展到公路与环境的范围,是当前应对全球化气候变化的低碳战略在公路领域的具体体现。与传统公路相比,绿色公路从理念到实践都存在着较大差别。从侧重公路的功能因素、强调经济效益的传统建设思想转变为整体考虑区域经济、环境、社会综合系统的可持续发展思想;从单纯注重公路经济合理性、技术可行性的陈旧评价方法转变为综合经济、节能、环保、景观、可持续发展的多目标评价体系。绿色公路的出现可谓是公路建设史上的一次革新,是科学技术发展的产物,标志着人类公路建设的节能环保意识从觉醒走向自觉的里程碑。
  走进北欧路人带大家看一看芬兰正在依旧如火如荼进行的绿色公路实践。

[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者


芬兰计划建造世界首条绿色高速公路
发布时间: 2010-08-23 能源观察网

  绿色汽车需要绿色公路,为此,芬兰计划建造世界上第一条绿色高速公路。该公路全长81英里,连接西南岸城市土库(Turku)和靠近俄罗斯边界的瓦利马(Vaalimaa)。沿途设立电动车充电站和生物燃料加油站,并使用沿途的废弃物和其他资源来生产乙醇等生物燃料,以鼓励绿色汽车技术的使用。
  该绿色公路沿途还将安装地热泵,并提供汽车排放量的信息。沿途的智能路灯更是一大特色,将根据天气情况自动关闭灯光或调整亮度。
  洛维萨(Loviisa)市将带头进行绿色公路的研究和试点,以验证计划的可行性。该公路最早将于2011年下半年开始建设,估计花费9亿美元,预计2016年竣工。(能源观察网编译自www.popsci.com
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

One of the big questions about electric vehicles is where we’ll charge them out on the road. Finland hopes to solve that riddle by building a carbon-neutral “green highway” that would include charging stations and biofuel stations.
The idea is to make it easy to embrace alt-fuel vehicles, and the project would focus on an 81-mile stretch of road that would link the cities of Turku and Vaalimaa near the Russian border. Authorities in the town of Loviisa, east of Helsinki and along the proposed highway, suggested the “green” approach and are leading the project.
“The aim is to create the model for an ecological highway that could be used even on an international level,” city official Aki Marjasvaara told AFP. “No other such project exists. This would set an example to the world.”
It is an incredibly ambitious idea. In addition to providing charging stations, the plan would use garbage and other renewable resources to produce biofuels and generate electricity. There also is some discussion of installing “smart” lighting that would turn itself off when there are no vehicles on the roadway. The road would of course include traditional gasoline and diesel fueling stations.
Officials are drafting a study examining the project’s feasibility and cost. They hope to finish the study in March and believe the project could be completed by 2016 at a cost of 700 million Euros (about $900 million). Marjasvaara told AFP he expects the road to be at least partially financed through investments from large companies like Fortum, Neste Oil and Ensto.
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(18P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者


[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
E18绿色公路概念:欧洲E18公路(E18),其起点为英国的克雷加文,经过挪威、瑞典和芬兰,终点为俄罗斯的圣彼得堡,全长约1890公里。其中共有两段渡轮连接:第一段为英国纽卡斯尔到挪威克里斯蒂安桑,另一段为瑞典卡珀尔谢尔到芬兰玛丽港。值得关注的是,目前E18高速公路芬兰段有多个路段正在按照绿色高速公路概念进行改造或建设。E18 GreenMSmart Business Corridor Concept:new horizons for EU-Russia interoperability and sustainable road traffic

[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者


绿色公路——一个450公里北欧合作项目
Green Highway - a 450 km Nordic Co-operative Project : By Asl? Tepecik Di?
[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

In northern Sweden and Norway, local and regional authorities are co-operating closely with companies and entrepreneurs to create a region where economic growth goes hand in hand with environmental development. They have established the world's first 'green highway', stretching from Trondheim in Norway on the Atlantic Coast, via ?stersund, to Sundsvall on the Baltic Sea, along the E6 and E14 motorways. The highway connects a region where green growth is given the highest priority.在瑞典和挪威北部,当地民众和政府与企业和企业家保持紧密合作以创造一个经济增长齐头并进、与环境协调发展的区域。他们已经修建世界上第一个“绿色公路”,从挪威大西洋海岸的特隆赫姆向东,沿E6和E14高速公路经瑞典耶姆特兰延伸到波罗的海边的松兹瓦尔。这条公路所连接的区域,其绿色增长是最优先考虑的。
'Green Highway' is a registered trademark that refers to a combination of activities with the same goal - a fossil-free green transportation corridor based on local and renewable energy, intended for people who drive eco-friendly vehicles. The project is led by the cities of Sundsvall and ?stersund in Sweden and Trondheim in Norway.“绿色公路”是一个注册商标,由具有相同目标的活动的组织 - 基于本地资源和可再生能源,用于推动环保车辆应用的绿色交通走廊该项目由瑞典城市松兹瓦尔和耶姆特兰、挪威城市特隆赫姆领导。
One of the unique aspects of the Green Highway project is that it links relatively low-dense, small- and medium-sized towns that have long commuting distances between them. The obvious dependence on private cars in these areas in turn promotes the opportunity of using locally abundant renewable energy to fuel private cars and helps to solve the significant constraint for reducing CO2 emissions in the region. Not only does this provide potential for financial growth, regional development and a more attractive environment, but these could eventually be important components that attract tourists and other local visitors.该绿色公路的独特之处在于,它连接密度相对较低、通勤距离相对较长的中小城镇。反过来对私家车的依赖明显在这些领域促进使用当地丰富的可再生能源为燃料私家车的机会,并有助于解决减少二氧化碳排放量在该地区的显著约束。这不仅提供了潜在的财务增长,区域发展和更具吸引力的环境,但这些可能最终成为吸引游客的重要组成部分。

Europe sees clean technologies as the future

The Green Highway project is particularly important with respect to the carbon footprint of the transport sector, which is the second-largest energy consumer and the greatest greenhouse gas emitter after the energy sector. In 2009, it represented 23% of global CO2 emissions, according to the International Energy Agency. Road transport, in particular, is responsible for almost three quarters of transport greenhouse gas emissions by EU countries. Transport is also threatened by energy poverty and is vulnerable to price instability, and in spite of considerable reductions in emissions of pollutants, there are still concerns about its effect on air quality. Thus, there is a growing concern about climate change, public health, depletion of natural resources and security of energy supply.
Accordingly, discussions in the EU focus on a shift from a fossil fuel-dependent economy towards one in which renewable alternatives and new vehicle systems are at the forefront. The EU has set out policy agendas such as the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) for aviation and CO2 emission targets for cars. Through its recent Roadmap for moving towards a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050, the European Heads of State and Government have decided to extend their commitment to achieving an ambitious target; reducing domestic emissions by as much as 95% by 2050. It is clear that the EU is placing emphasis on green ways of creating a European economy in which environmentally friendly technologies are to be prioritized. In this context, the Green Highway project illustrates how a green economy may become reality.

A road towards a low-carbon economy and better environment

The three Nordic cities set out to create changes in their region through political commitment, extensive co-operation between public and private partners and their ability to realize projects. In addition, the region has potential for green growth in the form of large reserves of renewable energy such as biomass, wind and hydropower. In the region, there are also many R&D activities, industrial establishments and technological developments connected to transport systems as well as energy production. There are a number of climate-smart transport initiatives, renewable energy sources and efficiency measures in place that provide environmental as well as economic benefits. These provide the cities with unique potential and an advantageous starting point.
The pioneers of the Green Highway project have partnered with other actors who share the cities' ambitions and see the potential future economic growth of their businesses that would result from a focus on climate and environmental issues. The other key regional actors are energy and high-tech companies, Trondheim Airport V?rnes, ?re ?stersund Airport, the region's colleges and universities as well as local and regional authorities.
Kjell I. Stellander, Project Manager for the Green Highway project from the City of Trondheim, says "We call it Green Highway; not necessarily for what it represents today, but for what we are going to create in less than 10 years' time: A fossil-free transport corridor across Mid-Scandinavia by 2020; a corridor and region that will contribute to the creation of business opportunities, sustainable economic growth, reduced greenhouse effects, and be attractive to local people as well as tourists."
A fossil-free transport system is an ambitious goal. However, the vision for the project reveals that this is a step towards green growth, where environmental gain is strongly connected to economic and social development. Initiating such a project creates opportunities for eco-innovation in businesses and gives the region the opportunity both to promote itself in terms of green tourism development and to sell its know-how.

[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
Map showing Green Highway/www.greenhighway.nu

Achievements so far

All activities of the project are well co-ordinated and focus on the main goal of a fossil-free transport corridor in line with the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. So far, the project has achieved the following goals:

  • Construction of the world's longest main road system, where people can charge their electric vehicles; there are 94 charging stations and more than 240 charging points (slow charging, 230V/16A) along the 447 km main road system.
  • Construction of quick-charging stations for electric vehicles in municipal centres along the Green Highway. The first quick-charging station in Northern Europe was opened on the Green Highway in ?stersund in April 2011. The second station opened at Trondheim Airport V?rnes in January 2012. Four more quick-charging stations along the Green Highway are already under construction.
  • Establishment of a filling infrastructure for biofuels: biogas, biodiesel (RME) and bioethanol.
  • Promotion of the use of electric vehicles in fleets as well as by private car owners.
  • Performance of a large test program for electric vehicles, including long-term performance testing in the winter climate in ?stersund.
  • Development of a prototype electric snow scooter. The technology used in the scooter is easily adaptable to other transport platforms, including electric alpine hill piste machines.
  • Development of internet-based communication systems through which travellers can plan routes using public transport, including details of the carbon footprint for the different routes.
  • Development of a meeting planner that provides optimal meeting locations to minimize time, costs and emissions.
  • Publication of a complete 'Buyers Guide for Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Cars', which is updated annually.
  • Establishment of a taxi project with electric vehicles in Trondheim.

[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路(17P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
Electric snow-scooter: example of a new technological solution./www.greenhighway.nu

An overall evaluation of the project regarding total energy is intended for the later stage of the project.

The road to results

An important principle for the Green Highway project is that the development should be based on a range of operations and solutions. Certainly, it is not possible to claim that one specific fuel, means of transport or change in attitude alone is required to achieve the ultimate goal. The truth is rather the opposite - the inclusion of and competition between solutions and technologies will catalyse development, according to the project managers.
Some of the conditions that have made the Green Highway possible are the following.

  • A high capacity for renewable energy from wind, water and biomass in the region.
  • A vast potential for production of renewable energy sources.
  • A strong will and interest from local and international investors to invest in the region.
  • Two large plants in ?stersund and Sundsvall that produce biogas for transport purposes from recycled organic waste. A production facility in Trondheim using raw material from the salmon industry is planned.
  • Comprehensive and systematic accumulation of competence in low- and zero-emission transport solutions such as electric and biofuel vehicles.

Close co-ordination and communication between ongoing projects and operations are also of utmost importance. Stellander emphasizes that the Green Highway has proven the strength of cross-border collaboration between cities, municipalities and countries in working towards common goals.
The project management focuses on an action-oriented approach: "We do not go through long strategy processes and plans; we move quickly into operations and harvest results along the way, which act as fuel and energy for further operations. This has also been proven to attract private partners and collaborators. Thus, organization and methodology is for us the road to success."
But is action alone enough? Mr. Stellander says: "No, evidently it is important to build your actions on sound strategies and plans. However, the duration of the project is only 3 years so we cannot initiate new strategies or plans but we try to build on already existing plans."
In conclusion, the three most apparent factors for reaching results in the project have been the region's favourable conditions, the establishment of a joint platform to facilitate close collaboration between key stakeholders (public authorities, private enterprises and high-tech companies), and the action-oriented approach whereby several projects are initiated by the municipalities and/or partners and collaborators and co-ordinated by the project organization.

The future of the Green Highway

From the project management's point of view, the political dimension is very important. An absence of political commitment to a low-carbon economy endangers the project. Political leadership is seen as essential for the long-term engagement of the cities, and for the development of institutional capacity across national borders. This is especially important for life after the project: What happens once the project is finalized? Will the cities be ready to take the project further by themselves?
"We want to be a part of the future. To become an integral part of long-term local and regional development plans and strategies we need political commitment to the project and to a low-carbon economy", says Stellander.
In conclusion, single projects grow when they involve other actors and projects and when they are all well co-ordinated. The platform for the project has boosted interest in involvement from other actors, which has raised the profile of the Green Highway further. Such an expanding platform and network will make faster development possible, with bottleneck effects eliminated through new technology and increasing competence. Inclusion of new participants will therefore create potential for more and faster results.
For the future, the Green Highway project aims to not only generate business opportunities and sustainable growth, but also to reduce the climate impact and further increase the attractiveness of the region for tourists.

[北欧] 芬兰:千湖之国感受绿色高速公路 - 路人@行者

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