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[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮Why&How (36P)  

2017-07-31 00:25:38|  分类: 18铁路与轨道 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow - 路人@行者
  每一次交通运输的变革,都曾为时代按下快进的按钮。轨道交通经过一百多年发展,开始迈入磁浮时代。今天,完全拥有自主知识产权、国内首条、全球最长的中低速磁浮商业运营示范线——长沙磁浮快线已经安全稳定运行一年有余,规划建设的“伟人故里”长株潭、“世界遗产”张家界等磁浮示范项目已经呼之欲出!犹记得曾乘磁悬浮Linimo领略爱知世博的睿智,常回味国际磁浮协会IMB的有关文献,忍不住收集一批愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 Linimo(愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 リニモ)图片,同时配发一些国际磁浮协会IMB介绍,与各位博友共享!愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 Linimo全长8.9km,设站9个,最高运行速度100km/h,采用常電導吸引型磁気浮上式 (HSST) ,更多愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 Linimo图文介绍,欢迎移步《[原创] 乘磁悬浮Linimo 领略爱知世博的睿智(10P)》。【本文相关文字及数据均系根据网络资料整理,仅供学习参考】

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

The International Maglev Board is an international non-profit organization. It is made up of internationally known transport scientists, engineers, experts as well as members of citizens' movements. The International Maglev Board does not in any way, shape or form endorse any particular manufacturer or industry group. We are beholden to no corporate interests.国际磁浮协会(IMB)是一个研究磁浮科技的国际非营利组织。由国际著名的交通运输科学家、工程师、专家暨市民代表协会成员所组成,是个独立且具科学性的协会,并非服膺于特定制造商或企业公司。国际磁浮协会并不是任何利益团体的代表,而是受到欧盟肯定的公益(非营利)组织。
Maglev technologies are not wonderful sweeping innovations that will provide a quick solution for all the mobility problems of the world. However, in specific cases, maglev trains can certainly contribute to the organization of more efficient mobility. This aspect should be tested in individual cases, for specific projects, i.e., in a comparison with wheel/rail and air traffic, and should be objective and fact-based, without technical prejudice or bias.磁浮科技并非是万能的技术,无法解决世界上所有的交通运输问题。然而,在特定情形下,它对打造出高效率的交通有极显著的贡献。比起轮轨运输、空中运输,磁浮科技的潜在可行性,在个别情境或特殊的项目上,必须接受更严谨且更专业的测试。同时,这些研究测试应建立在客观的论据上,摒除对科技及意识型态上的偏见。
Maglev supporters call for a fact-based examination and project-based evaluation of maglev systems in concrete individual cases – further, in a fair, scientifically based comparison with conventional wheel-on-rail and/or aircraft systems. Maglev should be promoted in places and situations where its use is meaningful, based on an objective weighing of the facts. Especially important evaluation criteria for all systems are their long-term economic effects and life-cycle costs.磁浮支持者认为磁浮系统的检测应以数据为基础,每一次独立的检测都是以项目评估进行,以科学性的论证,公平地与轮轨系统及飞机进行比较分析。任何技术所制造出的磁浮列车,其应用性应该是在客观的角度下而被证实是具有意义的。在实证的评鉴标准项目中,最重要的是磁浮技术长期上对国民经济与社会之影响,以及磁浮列车的生命周期成本。
The purpose of this Charta is to call for maglev systems to be included – objectively and fairly – in any and all long-range infrastructure planning and planning competitions.我们呼吁,在未来所有相关的交通建设之规划竞标及评估,皆应公开、公正且深具意义的将磁浮技术考虑在内。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 1 Maglev can make rapid transit more energy efficient and environmentally friendly.磁浮能实现环保与节能的交通运载
Chapter 2 Maglev can replace short-distance air traffic with attractive travel times.以更具吸引力的旅行时间取代短程空中交通
Chapter 3 Intercity mobility will become more economical with maglev.实现效率更高的城际交通
Chapter 4 Maglev can achieve very high levels of safety and comfort.达到安全与舒适的最高水平
Chapter 5 Maglev guideway construction is becoming more and more economical.越来越低廉的磁浮建造费用
Chapter 6 Maglev uses separate routes and avoids slower transport.隔离高速和低速交通道路
Chapter 7 Maglev test installations are a prerequisite for success.测试设施是成功创新的前提
Chapter 8 Maglev provides national economic and social benefits.长期的社会收益取代短期的回收增值
Chapter 9 Maglev systems are future-oriented, innovative and important.磁浮是具未来性、创新的重要系统

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
藤が丘駅
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 1 Maglev can make rapid transit more energy efficient and environmentally friendly.磁浮能实现环保与节能的交通运载
Maglev transportation systems are designed to be highly energy efficient. In a direct comparison, high-speed maglev systems are more energy efficient and environmentally friendly than air traffic. Certainly, transport and mobility will always consume energy and resources, but some maglev systems already today offer considerable advantages in this area. In addition, maglev trains do not create direct pollution emissions and are always quieter in comparison to traditional systems when operating at the same speeds.
In high-speed intercity transport, using maglev trains can offer an especially good cost-benefit ratio as regards land purchase, construction, operation, maintenance and environmental protection. Future technological advances can be expected to improve this ratio even more.
In the area of noise emissions, maglev trains are superior in every way to wheel/rail systems, not to mention airplanes. Comparisons made at the same speed show that all rolling friction noises, every track screech, all shocks from wheel-on-rail contact are eliminated in maglev systems that use magnetic forces rather than physical contact to keep the vehicle upright. Noise generated by air turbulence is also greatly reduced with maglev high-speed trains, making them clearly superior to all wheel/rail vehicles. In particular, the noise from the conventional train’s pantograph is replaced in maglev by a process of induction and the required energy is transferred without physical contact.
At speeds under 200 km/h (125 mph), maglev systems can hardly be heard, especially in an urban environment – an important advantage for settled areas. The Chinese Transrapid in Shanghai, the Japanese Linimo in Nagoya, the Ecobee Rotem in South Korea, all are city transport maglev trains, offer impressive proof of this.
In some maglev systems, the drive mechanism lies in the guideway, so it doesn’t have to be carried in the vehicle. This is a radical departure from traditional transport systems of every other type. In addition, with maglev trains, propulsion power only needs to be provided for short stretches as the vehicle passes through an active propulsion section.
Maglev routes also do not “divide the landscape” as highways, train tracks and waterways typically do. Animals can cross under elevated maglev guideways, which they do without hesitation, and farmers can till the land undisturbed, as shown by observation and experience at the test facilities in Japan’s Yamanshi Prefecture and Germany’s Emsland town of Lathen.
There is a strong demand to design future rail route architecture more aesthetically and open, in contrast to the massive constructions of the past. This public concern will affect maglev trains as well as wheel/rail systems.
交通和运载向来需要能源及资源。相较于其他的交通系统,尤其是与高速的交通工具–飞机比较,显而易见地,磁浮列车更具环保性,且更有效地节省能源。此外,磁浮列车在行驶中不会直接排放废气,比起马达运作的交通工具更安静。磁浮列车在运作和保养上,被认为是能创造收益大于成本的交通系统,而未来持续深化的技术,则预期更能持续提高成本效益比率。原则上磁浮系统在声发射上比所有轮轨系统更有竞争性。磁悬浮不会产生滚轮摩擦的声音,因此在磁浮轨道上不会出现一般火车发出的刺耳摩擦声。另外,因空气尾流而产生的噪音,磁浮快速列车比起轮轨交通工具更不会有这样的问题,尤其是磁浮排除了轮轨系统集电器所产生的噪音,因为它所需的能源是采无接触式的电磁感应传导。相较于同样速度的轮轨系统,磁浮快速列车在时速200公里以下则几乎听不到声音–这对住宅区与城市之间的交通往返有极大优势。上海市磁浮列车示范运营线(Transrapid Shanghai)和日本的东部丘陵线(Linimo)是城市磁浮交通线,两者皆有力地证实了前述的优点。磁浮轨道也比高速公路、铁路和水路更不会造成生态隔离效应,动物们可以在架高的磁浮轨道下不受影响地穿越迁徙。未来如何将轨道建筑在整体上打造得更细致化并符合美学,是磁浮与轮轨系统共同的需求。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
はなみずき通駅
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 2 Maglev can replace short-distance air traffic with attractive travel times.以更具吸引力的旅行时间取代短程空中交通
Maglev’s demonstrated ability to rapidly accelerate and decelerate, maintain a high travel speed and to follow flexible routes can lead to especially short total travel times and relatively simple access to city centers. Considering intercity travel times for distances of about 1,000 kilometers/600+ miles, maglev trains clearly outclass all other transport systems. The result is that air transport can be replaced attractively by maglev trains for short and medium distances. At the same time, high schedule frequency is possible, which also improves travel flexibility for customers.
Maglev systems can surpass the basic advantage of air traffic ?fast point-to-point connections between major cities ? and improve the connections between mid-sized cities with its simplified boarding procedures and reduced waiting times. And, as a rule, they can do this faster, more flexibly and more efficiently than would ever be possible with conventional wheel/rail systems.
Maglev’s main significance is as a direct connection between major cities, major airports and mega-cities.
在1000公里以内的城际交通中,磁浮所需时间明显短于其他交通系统:磁浮快速列车能以显著的优势替代中短程空中交通。强劲的加速性能,持久的高速巡航能力,以及灵活的轨道线路而能便捷抵达城市中心的特点,让磁浮快车能够大大缩短旅行时间。同时,高频率的车次也让乘客更能弹性地安排旅程。磁浮快速列车能够超越空中交通的优点,例如大城市之间点对点的快速连接,同时也能改善中等城市的转运连接 – 一般情况下,磁浮比起传统的轮轨铁路系统更能快速、弹性、驱动效率更高的达成这些需求。浮快速列车成为大都会、城市与大型机场的交通连接首选是明智的选择。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
杁ヶ池公園駅
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 3 Intercity mobility will become more economical with maglev.实现效率更高的城际交通
Maglev systems can operate at very high speeds almost without deterioration and are therefore more economical to operate than wheel/rail rapid transit systems that require regular intensive maintenance and experience exponentially increasing erosion with increasing speed. The fundamental freedom from mechanical erosion is one of the main advantages of maglev high-speed systems.
Maglev is the only trackbound transport system that has practically no mechanical friction during operation. In maglev, all the weight, propulsion and lateral guidance forces of the vehicle are transferred contact-free to the guideway, including the braking forces. As a result, maintenance costs are only a fraction of the costs of traditional wheel/rail systems.
In traditional wheel/rail operations, the wheels eventually wear out. For example, each InterCity Express (ICE) train wheel alone loses about 68 kg/150 lb of steel through friction from driving and braking before it is withdrawn from service, usually after two or three years (an entire ICE train loses about 8 metric tons/17,600 pounds). In addition, the resultant grit on the running surface of the tracks causes abrasion of the railheads.
磁浮快速列车在时速600公里行驶上也几乎毫无磨损,因此与保养维修费用高昂的轮轨快速交通系统相比之下,磁浮显然在营运上费用较低廉。轮轨系统在加速的同时也伴随着越来越高的磨耗。一般而言,轮轨系统在行驶上只有维持在时速200或250公里才具有经济济效益,时速超过250公里虽然看似令人赞叹,相对的确也产生出可观的营运费用。然而,高速交通下产生的高昂保养花费在经济评估上不是被忽略就是大大被低估。相反的,时速250公里对磁浮快速列车来说仅是速度性能的低门坎。无磨耗与更低廉的维修花费都是磁浮重要的优势之一。在行驶上几乎不会产生机械磨耗的就只有磁浮交通系统。磁浮会将所有的行驶负荷量、动力,包括驱动力和剎车力皆转嫁到轨道。其结果是,磁浮维修花费仅是轮轨系统高昂的维修费一小部分。在传统的轮轨铁路营运中,例如一节完整的德国ICE车厢约重达8公吨,因为与铁轨的摩擦,其车轮在行驶、磨擦和剎车时就会耗去车轮约66公斤的钢,两到三年后就需汰换轮子。日本的MLX磁浮列车现今仍有使用车轮用以支撑发动 – 然而这套磁浮系统已经全程皆采悬浮方式行驶,以符合零磨耗。日本的磁浮Linimo以及南韩的仁川机场磁浮线(昵称Ecobee)皆是城市型磁浮列车,无论是高速或低速行驶全程皆采磁悬方式,以合乎营运优势。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
長久手古戦場駅
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 4 Maglev can achieve very high levels of safety and comfort.达到安全与舒适的最高水平
In the areas of travel comfort and safety, maglev trains clearly exceed other rapid transit rail systems. The design of the guideway-- whether the German “T” shape for the wrap-around vehicle or the Japanese “U” shape with the vehicle enclosed -- ensures that the trains are safe from derailment. Today, maglev trains are generally considered to be among the most safe and comfortable rapid transit systems in the world.
The amount of space available inside maglev cars is generous compared to the relatively narrow proportions of many established train cars. For example, a German Transrapid interior is nearly a meter wider than conventional rail cars, which makes for more spatial freedom, a wider range of seating options and contributes to a higher overall comfort level. The levitation of the vehicle using magnetic forces ensures a quiet and smooth ride, even at the highest speeds, whereas wheel-on-rail systems sometimes struggle with this even at the lowest speeds. The Japanese Linimo as well as the South Korean Rotem “urban maglevs” can substantiate this claim for quiet, comfortable travel in city transport applications.
Even with regard to earthquakes, maglev trains are considered to be very secure rapid transit systems, something exemplified by the Japanese superconducting maglev system, the “Chuo Shinkansen.”
磁浮快速列车在旅行的安全与舒适性远胜过其他有感的快速交通系统。原则上,磁浮车身在(例如德国的)T型包覆轨道或是(日本的)U型内建轨道行驶能避免出轨的意外。磁浮列车是当前被认为是世界最安全与舒适的快速交通系统。基本上,磁浮列车内部空间宽敞,在空间运用上能克服一般轮轨系统内部狭窄的比例。例如德国磁浮列车的车身宽度比起德国ICE、法国TGV与日本新干线多了一公尺宽,这提高了空间自由度、更佳的座位安排,以及更高的舒适水平。利用磁力推动的磁浮列车,在高速行驶下能保证安静舒适的搭乘,这是传统轮轨系统就算在低速运作中也无法提供的。日本的磁浮Linimo与南韩的仁川机场磁浮线即证明了磁浮运用在城际交通上的搭乘舒适性。即使发生地震,磁浮也被认为是最安全的快速交通系统,日本的磁浮高速系统特别强调这点。在东京通往大阪的磁浮隧道挖掘上,虽然基本上存有发生地震时隧道是否稳定的疑虑,但是在传统的轮轨系统新干线的隧道上也一样有这样的疑虑。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
芸大通駅
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 5 Maglev guideway construction is becoming more and more economical.越来越低廉的磁浮建造费用
Through the technological developments of recent years, the infrastructure construction costs for high-speed maglev trains have converged to the same levels as those of traditional wheel/rail systems. Furthermore, there is a potential for further cost reduction. For topographically demanding routes, maglev trains already offer clear advantages in the cost of infrastructure construction.
Maglev systems can manage ascending grades of 10% and more, while traditional railroads are limited to grades on the order of 4%. Maglev trains adapt more easily to the landscape and therefore require fewer tunnels. This offers enormous cost savings in infrastructure construction, particularly in hilly landscapes.
New manufacturing processes in track construction, for example, the spun concrete construction technique and other modular production concepts, make it possible to reduce the costs of mass production considerably. In hilly landscapes, maglev guideways on pier foundations -- spaced tens of meters apart -- are considerably more economical than the massive, expensive embankments and causeways usually required for the entire length for most wheel/rail systems.
Maglev guideways can avoid obstacles without special additional bridge constructions. At-grade crossings with other traffic routes are eliminated and, therefore, collisions are rendered impossible. In the case of elevated track, alternative uses of the land under the track are still possible.
这几年因为技术的发展使得建造轮轨或磁浮快速交通的设施经费几乎无差异,然而磁浮列车的建设经费可望更为低廉。对于地形条件严苛的路段建造上,现今磁浮也提供显著的费用优势。磁浮列车能克服10%的上升坡度且高速行驶,优于轮轨铁路系统技术的最大极限4%。磁浮系统能轻易地适应地形,因此隧道需求较少。这在丘陵坡地的基本设施建造上可节省高昂的经费。新的轨道路线加工方式,例如轨道基座采用离心成型混凝土来建造,或是其他模式的制造概念,皆能明显减低大量施工的费用。比起轮轨系统在丘陵地形必须完全采用昂贵的填土与路堤建造方式,磁浮轨道的基座支柱则更有优势。磁浮轨道无须额外造桥以克服大多数轮轨系统会碰到的障碍,并且同时排除交通道路交叉与碰撞的可能性。此外,路面在轨道架空之下还能继续做其他用途的使用。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
公園西駅[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 6 Maglev uses separate routes and avoids slower transport.隔离高速和低速交通道路
High-speed ground transport can only be safe and efficient when it is completely separated from slower systems. The autonomy of a maglev train running on its own infrastructure is hence an important system advantage that makes overall safety, efficiency and punctuality possible in high-speed maglev operations.
The demand for compatibility or interoperability of high-speed rail transport with the operation of slower rail transport is based on traditional wheel/rail planning and is no longer meaningful in this form today. Vehicles with extremely different speeds on the same traffic path create a mutual hindrance and introduce mutual safety concerns. Safety clearances and time needs must therefore increase. Mixing slow transport with high-speed transport is clearly not advantageous economically for either system. This is equally true for all transport systems: bicycles on a freeway would be just as senseless as auto racing on cycling paths.
Combining rapid and slow transport systems creates a mutual hindrance and lowers the performance of the entire system. The operation of high-speed passenger trains should therefore be separated from freight trains and slower passenger transport. The Japanese Shinkansen train network has been completely separated from slower wheel/rail transport since 1964 and has operated fatality-free with incredible efficiency ever since.
The longer high speed running can be maintained, the better the performance will be, along with the cost effectiveness of the respective system. In this regard, maglev trains have the principle advantage through their independent routes and the automatic exclusion of mixed traffic.
轨道高速交通唯有与慢速的载客与货物运输交通完全隔离,才能安全且有效率的运作。磁浮列车有专属行驶路线,这是磁浮设施的独特之处,同时也是重要的系统优势,才能使磁浮在高速运转上达到安全、效率与准时性。以轨道铁路为营运的慢速交通系统诉求高速运输的「协调性」或「互操作性」,这是传统轮轨的规画构想,而这样的形式在现今看来是没有意义的。完全不同速度的交通工具行驶在同一条交通线道会彼此互相阻碍,安全距离和时间需求也会因此会随着提高。这样的交通系统会变得越来越慢,效能越亦疲软,且更不安全。于此看来,慢速与快速交通的混合并不利于经济效益。原则上,这样的状况对所有的交通系统都是一样,譬如自行车骑在高速公路,赛车开在自行车道,这都是毫无意义可言的。快速与慢速交通不分线道会互相阻碍运输,且减低整体系统的效能。因此,高速交通的载客列车原则上应该与货物列车以及较慢速的短程大众载客交通分开线道行驶。自1964年起,日本的新干线即完全且一贯的与慢速轮轨交通隔离营运。日本东京至名古屋之间的新高速磁浮列车MLX,将于2025年以前完成其独特的路线–不与传统的新干线交会。「互操作性」与「协调性」唯有在特定的速度等级内才有其优势。不同的速度混合会导致运行上不安全,并且可能造成极度的危险。行驶的速度水平越趋一致,则越能发挥系统性能,而且在每一种交通系统上也越能达到优良的经济效益。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
愛?地球博記念公園駅(愛知県立大学前)(旧駅名:万博会場駅)
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 7 Maglev test installations are a prerequisite for success.测试设施是成功创新的前提
Test installations are a prerequisite for the further development of maglev systems and technology innovations. Special importance is accorded to the testing installations in Japan’s Yamanashi site and Germany’s Emsland facility as sites for concrete maglev projects. Here the special layout of the lines and specifications can be simulated and optimized for implementation in projects in far distant areas. The implementation timeframes for worldwide projects can be shortened considerably – sometimes by years – through pilot tests.
Maglev system infrastructure can be developed faster and more economically when any problems that might occur during a realization project can be simulated on a full-scale test track beforehand. The optimization of operational requirements and rail bed parameters then takes place beforehand and not as a reaction to problems that arise, as is usually the case in wheel/rail projects.
In high-speed maglev transport as well as in regional or urban maglev transport, continuously active experimental and test routes are of considerable importance as tools for the realization and further development of transport projects and innovations.
磁浮实验线是每一个磁浮系统持续发展的前提,日本山梨县与中国的磁浮实验线设施是磁浮具体测试最具意义的代表例子。在边远地区的磁浮项目,其特殊轨道与磁浮规格都会在实验在线仿真与被改善优化。世界各地的磁浮项目都能藉由实验测试线大幅缩短磁浮营运实现的预估时间–部分甚至缩短数年。假如磁浮的未来行驶条件可以事先在实验线设施模拟测试,则磁浮交通设施能发展的更快速且低成本。此外,藉由测试也能事先得出磁浮运作与路线的参数,而非在问题发生后才采取措施,这是轮轨项目经常发生的状况。无论是磁浮高速铁路,或是短程的地区磁浮铁路(如城市磁浮),长期的营运测试在交通项目上具有落实与持续发展的意义。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
陶磁資料館南駅
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 8 Maglev provides national economic and social benefits.长期的社会收益取代短期的回收增值
Wheel/rail vehicle manufacturers are naturally interested in the highest possible earnings from maintenance and upkeep. From a national economic point of view, in contrast, the least possible expenditure for maintenance and repair of mechanical parts is more desirable. Low maintenance costs make an essential contribution to economical mobility. For maglev systems, which are always levitated, even at the highest speeds, and do not make contact with their guideways, low maintenance costs are typical. In this sense, using maglev systems are advantageous from an economic point of view.
For wheel/rail manufacturers and companies, the unavoidable wear and tear involved in a wheel/rail system is a very interesting effect from an entrepreneurial viewpoint: it’s an effect that guarantees consistent high turnover, or sales. Infrastructure elements and vehicles must be kept in running order with replacement parts and intensive maintenance, so the higher the driving speed, the higher the abrasion from wheel-rail contact – and also the higher the profits. It is a truism that vehicle manufacturers achieve higher profits in the rapid-transit sector from maintenance than from the sale of vehicles.
Maglev systems are practically abrasion-free in operation and therefore offer relatively low expenditures for maintenance. They are also especially economical to operate. Companies that base their sales projections on maintenance, repairs and replacement parts sense one of the main advantages of the maglev train system -- low maintenance -- as an economic threat to their business and have been known to block the discussion on the use of maglev trains. From the viewpoint of an individual company, such a perspective is certainly understandable. However, from a general social and future-oriented viewpoint, such obstructions are economically questionable, if not actually damaging.
For all transport infrastructure projects, it is of fundamental importance that long-term social orientation increases and the corresponding objective cost-benefit comparisons are made as the basis of future decisions rather than the short-term profit motives of the established wheel/rail manufacturing sector. Transport infrastructures affect living spaces for many decades afterwards; future generations will carry the social and financial burden of the today’s decisions made to build relatively inefficient and uneconomical structures.
Even when projects in transport infrastructure continue to be tested on a case-by-case basis to decide which technology should be put to use, maglev systems can often offer a qualitatively superior solution when subjected to an objective cost-benefit comparison.
轮轨运载工具生产商在意的是从保养与磨耗维修中赚取可观的营业额。从商业营运的角度来看,高度的磨耗对轮轨生产商是有利的,因为能争取到维修委托。相反的,从国民经济角度来看,机械磨耗的保养与维修支出是期望尽可能低廉的:越低的运作保养维修成本,则能回馈在廉价的搭乘费用。不接触轨道而高速行驶的磁浮列车,则是典型的保养成本低廉。在费用低廉与国民经济观点看来,磁浮营运是具有优势且值得的。对轮轨市场的生产商与企业来说,一般轮轨系统无可避免的磨耗是一种具有极高利益的商业效应,能带来中长期的高营业额。交通设施与运载工具必须依靠汰换和密集保养以维持状态–行驶速度越快,磨耗程度也就越高–也藉此赚取营业额。因此比起销售运输工具,制造商在快速交通的长期保养合约收入上比较能赚取利润。行驶上几乎无磨耗的磁浮系统,其保养支出是相当低的–所以在营运成本方面是相当有竞争力的。依靠保养、维修与磨耗零件来维持营业额的公司,会将零磨耗的磁浮系统视为他们保养业务上的利益威胁,也因此他们一般会阻止磁浮系统的应用讨论。从公司经营方面来看,这样的举动虽然可以被理解,但就整体社会与未来规划而言,这类的阻挡行为并非有益国民经济,甚至是损害。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
八草駅(愛知工業大学前)(旧駅名:万博八草駅)
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者

Chapter 9 Maglev systems are future-oriented, innovative and important.磁浮是具未来性、创新的重要系统
Maglev trains are important transport systems for the future perspectives of regions, nations and states. They can create important location advantages.
Maglev systems represent a revolutionary transport innovation. At the same time, they can also function as a technology development platform (e.g., superconductors, new materials). They can, in certain cases, bring positive economic benefits through the optimization of spatial networking, travel time reduction and resource efficiency. A meaningful use of the technology also brings collective social advantages as well as a good image and prestige. The city of Shanghai, China, where Transrapid has been in use since 2003 for high-speed airport-to-downtown transport, uses these advantages intensively and markets them aggressively.
Each maglev system has its own advantages that can be applied for different uses, e.g., in high-speed passenger and freight transport or as a local urban commuter system.
The German Transrapid and the Japanese Superconducting Maglev are two of the leading maglev systems in high-speed ground transport. The Transrapid in Shanghai has been in successful commercial use since 2003 and the Chinese Dolphin, based on the Transrapid system, likewise targets the high-speed segment.
The Japanese Linimo and the Korean Rotem Maglev (Ecobee) are both used for rapid but lower-speed urban transit.
以地区、各州之间,以及国家的未来发展而言,磁浮快速列车不辙是一项深具重大意义的交通系统,它能创造重要的位置优势。磁浮是革命性的结构创新,并且能连带引发技术发展(例如超导体,一种新材质)。藉由空间网络优化、旅行时间最小化以及资源效应,磁浮能为国民经济带来正向的收益。磁浮的导入将有利于整体社会,且能连带塑造社会形象与声望。上海自2004年导入磁浮高速交通,即充分的宣传与利用磁浮的优势–尽管磁浮线为了达到营运效益而建造的比较短。不同的磁浮系统,依不同的导入目的而有不同的系统优势,例如用作高速交通或是当作城市近程交通系统。德国磁浮Transrapid与日本磁浮MLX皆属于影响性的高速磁浮交通系统。上海磁浮自2004年起即成功的导入成为日常交通运输。这条以Transrapid系统为基础的中国海豚,在磁浮划分上同样是定位在高速交通。相反的,日本磁浮Linimo与韩国磁浮Ecobee则是短程的城市磁浮技术例子。

[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮WhyHow (36P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者


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