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[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P)  

2018-07-29 14:26:47|  分类: 14国外桥梁 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  从巨大的35拱古罗马大渡槽到令人瞠目的20英里立交,世界上有很多不可思议的桥梁。近日,每日邮报Mail Online推荐了一款新书,书名很简单很暴力——《桥》Bridge,展示了一批从古代到未来主义的迷人图片,描绘了世界各地更不同寻常、更令人惊奇的桥梁,讲述了桥梁建造技术正在改变人类生存的时间和空间。David Ross的这本新书也揭示了如何建造桥梁,让我们看到桥梁正成为社会变革的催化剂。From a 35-arch ancient aqueduct to an eye-popping 20-mile road crossing: The world's most incredible bridges revealed.New book, simply called Bridges, charts some of the more unusual and stunning crossings from around world.Fascinating pictures show how technology for building bridges has vastly changed over the course of time.The book, by David Ross, also reveals how building bridges can be the catalyst for social change.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  01瓦斯科·达伽马大桥是欧洲最长的桥梁,位于葡萄牙首都里斯本,跨越塔霍河。大桥全长12.3公里,斜拉主桥跨度420m。瓦斯科·达伽马大桥设计寿命120年,可承受每小时250公里风速,可抵御芮氏8.7级地震。The Ponte Vasco da Gama is Europe's longest bridge, crossing the Tagus estuary to bypass Lisbon. The cable-stayed main span is 420m (1,378ft) and the full length is 7.67 miles. It is built to withstand a major earthquake, and to have a life expectancy of 120 years.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  02加尔桥位于法国南部加尔省,是古罗马帝国时期修建的高空引水渡槽,是一座三层的石头拱形桥,中、下层是支撑桥体和通行桥,最上层为封闭水渠,十分奇特而壮观。高49米,长269米,1985年联合国教科文组织将加尔桥作为文化遗产,列入《世界遗产名录》。Built over the Gard River in France between 40 and 60CE, the Pont du Gard is 902ft long and is the highest Roman aqueduct (164ft), once carrying around 200,000 cubic metres of water a day on an imperceptible gradient of 1/3000. Its two lower levels were built without mortar. In use as an aqueduct until the sixth century, it owed its survival to being used as a roadway.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  03锦带桥位于日本山口县岩国市的锦川河上,是一座五孔石墩木拱桥,跨度27.5米,全长193.3米,宽5米,1673年建造完成,是日本三大名桥之一。采用传统的木工工艺,全桥只用包铁和插销固定、充分应用精巧的木工技术的桥梁结构。The five arches of the Kintai Bridge in Japan that seemingly float up from their solid stone piers present a superb example of all-wood construction, using Japanese zelkova, pine, cypress, chestnut and oak. In this form, the bridge dates back to 1673, though rebuilding was required in 1950 when the arches were washed away. Kintai means 'gold brocade sash'.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  04波尔多雅克·沙邦-戴尔马大桥,欧洲最长的垂直升降桥,位于法国南部港口城市波尔多,是跨越加龙河的一座垂直升降式公路及轨道交通两用吊桥,2013年3月17日正式通车。该桥全长575米,其中主桥长433米,宽45米,桥塔高87米,桥的可活动部分长110米,它采用滑轮系统提升,最大提升高度77米。Europe's longest vertical-lift bridge, the Pont Jacque Chaban-Delmas in Bordeaux, opened in 2013. It allows large ships to pass on the Garonne River. Its 2,600-tonne central lifting span is counter-balanced by 600-tonne weights in the four towers. The span is steel, the towers are concrete and the lighting systems emphasise its vertical lines.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  05斯莱特桥,建于十八世纪底,位于英国坎布里亚郡,横跨布拉塞河,是拱形和板式的组合,是一条驮马的路线,从山上的采石场运送石板。拱顶石高达1.3米而宽度只有1.2米,意味着需要非常小心的通过。Built in the late 18th century across the River Brathay, Slaters' Bridge in Cumbria is a combination of arch and slab and was on a pack-horse route to carry slates from quarries in the hills. The voussoirs (arch stones) are up to 4.3ft long. The width of only 4.2ft meant it required very careful passage.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  06米拉格罗斯渡槽,位于西班牙的阿尔巴雷加斯河上,将水运往罗马城的埃默里塔奥古斯塔(今梅里达),公元1世纪建造、公元3世纪修整。水槽为双拱门形式,有38个拱形柱子,高约25米,长约830米,用花岗岩石块与红砖筑成,桥墩之间的最大跨径44米。Carrying water to the Roman city of Emerita Augusta over the Albarregas River in Spain, the Aqueduct de los Milagros was built soon after 100CE, when Roman engineering reached a high point during the reign of Trajan. Nowadays, it is favoured by storks for nest-building. Its maximum height is 98.5ft and the longest span between piers is 14.8ft

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  07柚木大桥,位于缅甸曼德勒市区南方约11公里处,建于1849-1851年间,全长1.2公里、1086根柱子支撑,整座桥用一座被拆除的宫殿里用木材建造,古色古香,乡风浓郁。一些原物被混凝土取代了,有四个木制亭子,九个可移动的跨度,允许船只通过。Between 1849 and 1851 the teakwood U Bein Bridge in Myanmar was built across the Taung Tha Man Lake, using timbers from a dismantled palace. In total 1,086 pillars support it but some of the originals have been replaced by concrete. It is 3,967ft long, with four wooden pavilions, and nine movable spans to allow boats to pass.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  08滕布里克神父水道桥,建于1555和1572年间,位于墨西哥中部高原,由68个拱门跨越Tepeyahualco峡谷和帕帕罗特河,是一套完整的水利灌溉系统,包括山泉、水池、运河和连续拱的水道桥,总长四十五公里,最高处达四十余米,土砖砌筑的水道桥基本完整无损地保留至今。水道桥是当地社区在腾布里克神父倡议下合力修起来的,体现了罗马的水利建设传统,而应用土砖则是中美洲的建筑技术,现列入世界遗产。Part of a vast hydraulic irrigation system, the initiative of Franciscan friars, the striking Padre Tembleque Aqueduct in Mexico was built between 1555 and 1572. Its 68 arches cross the Tepeyahualco Ravine and Papalote River, with a maximum height of 111ft. The brickwork construction combined European technology and Mesoamerican building techniques.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  09玉带桥,位于北京颐和园昆明湖长堤上,建于清乾隆年间。该桥单孔净跨11.38米,矢高约7.5米,全部用玉石琢成,桥面是双反向曲线,组成波形线桥型,配有精制白石栏板,显得格外富丽堂皇。Spanning the outlet from Kunming Lake to the Yu River in the Summer Palace Complex, the Jade Belt Bridge's high arch was designed to allow passage to the imperial barge in Beijing. But it is also known as 'Moon Bridge': the arch and its reflection in the water making a full circle. Built between 1715 and 1764, its name comes from the decorated archivolts, said to resemble jade ornaments.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  10保加利亚魔鬼桥,奥斯曼桥梁建筑的代表,建于1515-1518年间,直接设置在基岩上,桥长56米,拥有3个拱,在拱之间还有半圆形的测水位的小洞。桥宽3.5米,距离水面11.50米,最大跨度13米,此外,还有石制的栏杆,高12厘米,以保护过往的行人,于1984年被意为保加利亚文化遗迹。魔鬼桥背靠巍峨的高山,又有潺潺溪流的映衬,共同组成了一幅优美的画卷。The Dyavolski Most (Devil's Bridge) bridge in Ardino, Bulgaria, is one of numerous bridges that demonstrate the skill of Ottoman builders. Built between 1515 and 1518, set directly on bedrock, it carries the old Roman Via Egnacia, an ancient road that ran from the Aegean coast to northern Thrace, over the River Arda. Its main span is 185ft and the apex is 37.7ft above the stream. Its name comes from a legendary pact between its builder, Dimitar, and the Devil.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  11班贝格老市政厅桥,位于德国拜恩州班贝格市,上承式石拱桥,跨越雷格尼茨河支流,河中有一座小岛分隔,建于1455年。老市政厅坐落在河流和桥梁之上,像一艘停泊的船,糅合了哥特式、巴洛克和洛可可风格,洛可可式和半木结构式风格,始建于15世纪。1744-1756年间人们对它进行了翻修。Spanning an arm of the Regnitz River, the arches of Obere Brücke (Upper Bridge) in Bamberg, Germany, are separated by a small island. The bridge replaced an older structure in 1455. The building is the rococo and half-timbered style Altes Rathaus or old Town Hall, built between 1744 and 1756, with a through passage for pedestrians. The central arch, of three, was destroyed in 1945 and rebuilt in 1956.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  12联邦大桥,是一条长达12.9公里、连接加拿大东部的爱德华王子岛与新不伦瑞克省之间的跨海公路大桥,1997年建成通车。后张预应力混凝土箱梁,现场施工,设计寿命100年。浮冰防护是施工中的一个重要问题。The Trans-Canada Highway was extended to Prince Edward Island in eastern Canada with the opening of this eight-mile bridge in 1997. Its spans are formed of post-tensioned concrete box girders, constructed on-site, and designed for a 100-year lifespan. Protection against surface and floating ice was a major issue in construction

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  13斯里加干河石桥,苏格兰天空之岛上的库林丘陵为斯里加干河上的这座桥创造了戏剧性的背景。它是由托马斯特尔福德在1815年前后建造的,作为一个道路改善计划的一部分,使用当地碎石建造,风格简单、坚固。The Cuillin Hills on the Isle of Skye in Scotland make a dramatic background to this bridge over the Sligachan River. It was built by Thomas Telford around 1815 as part of a road improvement scheme, of local rubblestone, in the simple, solid style of his smaller bridges.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  14卡里奥卡渡槽,里约热内卢的阿科斯达拉帕也被称为卡里奥卡渡槽,1750建成,1723开始已经作为城市供水系统的一部分。拉帕街区连接圣特雷莎山和圣安东尼山的这段渡槽跨度为270米,由两层巨大的拱门组成 - 共42个 - 最大高度为17.6米。Also known as the Carioca Aqueduct the Arcos da Lapa in Rio de Janeiro was inaugurated in 1750, though begun in 1723 as part of a water supply system for the city. Its 42 two-storey arches, in austere military style, stretched for 886ft, at a height of 57.7ft. By the 1890s it was redundant, but found a new role as conduit for the Santa Teresa tramline.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  15曼谷双子桥, 泰国曼谷双子斜拉桥位于高架桥上,由2座主 跨分别为398m和326m的钢混组合梁斜拉桥组成,两桥之间是一座位于湄南河上方的多层螺旋式立交桥,连接着朝南河上的南北路线,并与西路相连,达到164英尺的高度。Between the two cable-stayed Bhumibol Bridges to the south of Bangkok is a multi-level spiral interchange above the Chao Phraya River, linking the north-south route over the bridges with the western approach, and reaching a height of 164ft. Both built to the same design, the bridges have concrete towers in elongated diamond shape.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  16查理大桥,布拉格游客最多的景点,建于1357-1402年间,遵照捷克国王查理四世之命而建,1870年之前称为“石桥”,在每一端都有一座坚固的塔楼。横跨伏尔塔瓦河,桥长520米,宽10米,有16座桥墩,跨度从16.62到23.28米间变化。它的30尊雕像现在是原作的复制品。Named after Emperor Charles IV in Prague, before 1870 it was simply known as 'the Stone Bridge'. Built over the Vltava River between 1357 and 1402 of Bohemian sandstone, it has a fortified tower at each end. Its 16 arches vary in span, from 16.62 to 23.28m (54.5 to 84ft). The 30 statues that line it are now replicas of the originals.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  17东海大桥,起始于上海市浦东新区(原南汇区)芦潮港,北与沪芦高速公路相连,南跨杭州湾北部海域,直达浙江嵊泗县小洋山岛,全长32.5公里。S形桥梁主要是在双柱桥墩上形成节段混凝土跨度,斜拉桥主墩和三个辅助通航跨度。一个相关的风力发电场,有34个涡轮塔,高达46英尺高。The S2 Hulu Expressway takes to the sea for over 20.2 miles to link Shanghai with Yangshan Port. Opened in 2005, the S-shaped bridge is mostly of segmental concrete spans on double-column piers, with a cable-stayed main and three auxiliary navigational spans. An associated wind farm of 34 turbine towers, 446ft high, is projected.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  18雷格森互通,加利福尼亚州洛杉矶州际公路105号和110号线在雷格森法官互通处相遇,四级的坡道和交叉口允许交通从任何方向进入和离开。计算机帮助规划混凝土结构,超过131英尺高,在1994开放。它结合了轻轨列车和专用公交专用道的通道。Interstate Routes 105 and 110 in Los Angeles, California, meet at the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, where ramps and crossings on four levels allow traffic to enter and leave from any direction. Computers helped in planning the concrete construction, over 131ft high, which opened in 1994. It incorporates passage for light-rail trains and dedicated bus lanes.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  19阿尔坎塔拉桥,罗马桥梁,卡塞里斯省,埃斯特雷马杜拉(西班牙)。位于古罗马跨塔古斯河的6孔半圆形石拱桥,桥跨径(m)分别为13.8、22.6、27.9、28.2、22.5、13.5。桥宽8m,桥高72m(高出水面62.5m),为古罗马桥中最高者。花岗石桥墩,有9.15m见方,用重约8吨的大型拱块砌筑,几乎不用砂浆,无装饰。该桥由拉塞(lacer)于公元98~105年建造,以纪念图拉真皇帝。拉塞死后葬于桥旁左岸。中央凯旋门题写:“我建造了一座将永远存在的桥”。Commissioned by Emperor Trajan in 98CE, the Puente Trajan in Spain was designed by Caius Julius Lacer, and built over the Tagus without mortar in 104–06CE. It has six arches, the total length is 596ft, width 28.2ft, and height 147.6ft. A triumphal arch above the central pier is inscribed: 'I have built a bridge which will last for ever'.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  20金门大桥,测试新技术和设计理论,自1937以来,金门大桥的1280m跨度跨越旧金山湾(总长2737.4米),在67米以上的高水位。27年来,它是世界上最长的悬索桥,至今仍是现存的最优雅、最匀称的桥之一。Testing new technology and design theories, since 1937 the Golden Gate Bridge's 1,280m (4200ft) span has crossed San Francisco Bay (total length is 2,737.4m, 1.7 miles), at 67m (220ft) above high water level. For 27 years it was the world’s longest suspension bridge, and remains one of the most elegant and best-proportioned of the many now existing.

[美图] 桥梁:改变生活时空 催化社会变革(22P) - 路人@行者 - 路人@行者
  感谢David Ross的这本新书,150张图片,不仅显示了新技术如何使桥梁成为可能,而且讲述了桥梁如何成为社会变革的催化剂。感谢David Ross先生,选用了这张湖南省交通规划勘察设计院主持设计的岳阳洞庭湖大桥作为全书封底——作为当时国内最长内河公路桥、我国第一座三塔双索面斜拉大桥和亚洲首座不等高三塔双斜索面预应力混凝土漂浮体系斜拉桥,全长10174.2米,主桥梁长5747.8米。主桥桥型为不等高三塔、双索面空间索、全飘浮体系的预应力钢筋混凝土肋板梁式结构的斜拉桥,跨径为130+310+310+130米。该桥曾荣获国家科学技术进步二等奖、湖南省科学技术进步一等奖,并获第五届詹天佑大奖、国家优秀工程设计金奖,中国土木工程学会2004年第16届年会上入选首届《中国十佳桥梁》。


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